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This title provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of the mechanical behavior of concrete, including such features as its elastoplasticity, its compressive.
Table of contents

Each specimen consisted of a timber block connected to two concrete slabs by means of two 8 mm diameter screws per side produced by Rotho Blaas. A layer of OSB was interposed to reproduce the timber flooring often used as permanent formwork for the placement of the concrete slab in new floors or the existing timber flooring when strengthening existing timber structures. Two different screw lengths and interlayer thicknesses were investigated. For each configuration, 10 push-out specimens were tested. The results were statistically assessed by computing the mean slip moduli and the characteristic values of the shear strength.

Numerical simulations were also carried out to investigate the dependency of the slip modulus upon the screw inclination and the interlayer flooring thickness.

Description

Other papers in this volume. Registered in England as a limited company No. Connect with WIT Press:. Toggle navigation. My Basket. Search Papers Books. All Papers Books Advanced. The rice husk ash has been taken for this present study due to its easy availability and effective pozzolonic properties that are expected to improve the mechanical strength properties of concrete.

The tests were conducted at the age of 7 and 28 days. By the experimental investigation the recommendation is given for using optimum percentage of RHA in concrete. Concrete is the largest building material used by the construction industry. Concrete is basically made of both fine and coarse aggregates, binding by cement. Each one of these constituents of concrete hasn't a positive environmental impact and gives rise to different sustainability issues. The recent concrete construction practice is unsustainable even not only it consumes enormous quantities of stones, sand and water, but also one billion tons of cement a year, which is not an environment friendly material.

In fact, many byproducts and solid wastes can be used in concrete mixes as admixtures or aggregates or cement by partial or full replacement, depending on their physical and chemical characterization, if adequately treated. Thus cement is replaced by partial amount of RHA as a mineral admixture. Several materials are used to manufacture good quality concrete. It is important to know the properties of cement, aggregate, and water, as they impart strength and durability to concrete of all the materials that influence the behavior of concrete, cement is the most important constituent, because it is used to bind the sand and aggregate together and it resists atmospheric action.

Durability problems arise during the service life of a concrete structure. This actually is a result of improper design, execution or specification at the time of tendering for the work. However under normal conditions, good quality of concrete has a long life.


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Cement is the most important ingredient in concrete. The specific gravity of Ordinary Portland cement is 3.

Properties of Concrete - Concrete Technology - Civil Engineering Notes

Depending upon the particle size distribution, locally available river sand confirming to Zone II of Table 4 of IS was used in the casting process. The specific gravity of the sand is found to be 2. Fine aggregate used should be properly graded to give minimum void ratio and should be free from deleterious materials like clay, silt content and chloride contamination etc. The coarse aggregate is the strongest and the least porous component of concrete.

It is also a chemically stable material. The blue granite stone was used as a coarse aggregate for this work. The nominal size of the aggregate is 20mm. The specific gravity of the coarse aggregate is found to be 2. By restricting the maximum size of aggregate and also by creating the transition zone stronger by usage of mineral admixtures such as rice husk ash, the cement concrete becomes more homogenous and there is a marked enhancement in the strength properties as well as durability characteristics of concrete.

Water is a crucial and important ingredient of the concrete as it actively participates in the chemical reaction with cement and results in hardening of the concrete. The water used in this study was potable water.

The potable water used was confirming to the requirements of IS Rice husk ash is obtained by burning of the rice husk obtained from rice mills. Like other pozzolans, RHA reacts with the calcium hydroxide lime by-products produced during cement hydration to produce additional cementing compound, which is responsible for holding the concrete together.

It is very fine, highly reactive and gives fresh concrete a creamy and non sticky texture that makes finishing easier.

RHA improves the compressive strength of concrete, makes finishing easier, reduces efflorescence and also mitigates alkali, silica reaction. It is a pozzolan material consisting of alumina and silica. So it can be used in the concrete to replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement.

Mechanical Behavior of Concrete

Their percentage varies at different temperatures. The physical properties of RHA are given in Table 1. The advantage of replacing some of the cement with RHA rather than addition of RHA to the mix is that any existing color formulas or mix designs won't change, or slightly change.

This is because the dosage of pigments and super plasticizers are added based on the cement content in the concrete. It is ok to simply add RHA to an existing mix, but it is important to realize that the total equivalent cement content will increase. This will affect not only the addition pigment and admixture dosages but also the water to cement ratio, a critical factor in mix design.

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RHA is compatible with most of the concrete admixtures, such as super plasticizers, retarders, accelerators, etc. The M30 mixes were designated in accordance with IS - Based on the results, the proportions M30 was considered. The details of mix proportions are given in Table 2 for 1m 3 of concrete. The experimental investigation was carried out by casting cubes; cylinder and prism for both the conventional concrete mix and RHA replaced concrete. The mixing procedures are as follows: Initially Cement, Sand and RHA were taken in the required quantities and were mixed dry and kept separately.

Then, coarse aggregate and the prepared dry mix were kept in three layers and approximate amount of water was sprinkled on each layer and mixed thoroughly. Mixing procedure was extremely tedious to the formation of lumps. Concrete was thoroughly mixed and compacted.

Chemical and Physical Effects of Silica Fume on the Mechanical Behavior of Concrete

The cubes of size mm x mm x mm were cast for testing the compressive strength of concrete and cylinders of diameter mm and height mm were cast for the split tensile strength. For flexural strength test, prisms of size mm x mm x mm were cast. Samples for different percentages of concrete were casted. The number of specimens cast for the present study is listed in Table 3. The specimens were remolded 24 hours after casting and the specimens were kept inside a water tub containing potable water and allowed for curing.

They were taken out from the curing tank after 7 days and 28 days and were dried for 1 day in shadow before testing. The specimens were tested in saturated condition after wiping out the surface moisture from the specimen. The cubes of size mm x mm x mm were employed for testing the compressive strength of concrete.

Mechanical behaviour of concrete as a composite material

The test results of the Compressive Strength were given in graphically in Fig. The tensile strength characteristics of concrete are of considerable importance and split tensile test is a simple and reliable method for measuring the tensile strength of concrete. Splitting tensile tests were carried out on cylindrical specimens of diameter mm and height mm at an age of 7 days and 28 days using HEICO Compression Testing Machine of capacity tonnes confirming to IS: - The test results were given in Fig. The flexural strength tests were carried out in Universal Testing Machine by Two Point loading method with the guidelines given by IS: - The specimens were of size mm x mm x mm.

The variation of flexural strength is presented graphically in Fig. The micro structure of cement replaced by Rice husk ash was observed and the micro structural behavior was reported. The composition of chemical elements were also observed and discussed.