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Fluorine and Health. Molecular Imaging,. Biomedical Materials and. Pharmaceuticals. Edited by. Alain Tressaud. ICMCB-CNRS. University of Bordeaux I.
Table of contents

In addition, we will invent novel reagents and reactions for late-stage radical trifluoromethoxylation OCF3 and pentafluorosulfanylation SF5 of complex pharmaceuticals and natural products, which will allow rapid biological-activity assays of trifluoromethoxylated and pentafluorosulfanylated analogues.

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These reagents and synthetic methods could maximize structural diversity and provide insights for future rational property design. To complement these diversity-oriented synthetic approaches, we will also establish transition metal-catalyzed polyfluoroalkylation of phenols to achieve site-selective synthesis of polyfluoroalkoxylated compounds. Given that the fluorinated groups exhibit favorable properties for biological applications, our research program will allow access to and study of new fluorinated functional molecules to aid the discovery and development of new drugs, biocompatible materials, bioprobes, and imaging agents.

Fluorine-containing compounds have favorable physical, chemical and biological properties, and are omnipresent in daily life. They can be found in pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, lubricants, polymers, clothes, non-stick cookware and inhaler propellant, and are involved literally every aspect of life. Our ability to create new fluorinated functional molecules will have significant impact on a broad spectrum of technological applications.

The work described herein focuses on the invention of novel chemical tools for creating new fluorine-containing molecules to accelerate drug discovery and development, improve the quality of health care products, and promote the development of new materials for biomedical applications. Fluoride is considered a semi-essential element for humans: not necessary to sustain life, but contributing within narrow limits of daily intake to dental health and bone strength. Daily requirements for fluorine in humans vary with age and sex, ranging from 0.

Elemental fluorine is highly toxic. At levels of 25 ppm, fluorine is immediately dangerous to life and health. Hydrofluoric acid , the water solution of hydrogen fluoride HF , is a contact poison.

Description

Even though it is from a chemical perspective a relatively weak acid, it is far more dangerous than conventional strong mineral acids , such as nitric acid , sulfuric acid , or hydrochloric acid. Owing to its lesser chemical dissociation in water remaining a neutral molecule , hydrogen fluoride penetrates tissue more quickly than typical acids. Poisoning can occur readily through the skin or eyes or when inhaled or swallowed. From to , at least nine workers died in the United States from accidents with HF. Once in the blood, hydrogen fluoride reacts with calcium and magnesium, resulting in electrolyte imbalances, potentially including hypocalcemia.

The consequent effect on the heart cardiac arrhythmia may be fatal.


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Hydrogen fluoride interferes with nerve function, meaning that burns may not initially be painful. If the burn has been initially noticed, then HF should be washed off with a forceful stream of water for ten to fifteen minutes to prevent its further penetration into the body. Clothing used by the person burned may also present a danger.

Skin burns can be treated with a water wash and 2. Calcium gluconate may be injected or administered intravenously. Use of calcium chloride is contraindicated and may lead to severe complications. Sometimes surgical excision of tissue or amputation is required. Soluble fluorides are moderately toxic. The fluoride ion is readily absorbed by the stomach and intestines. Ingested fluoride forms hydrofluoric acid in the stomach.

In this form, fluoride crosses cell membranes and then binds with calcium and interferes with various enzymes.

Positron Emission Tomography | Scribd

Fluoride is excreted through urine. Fluoride exposure limits are based on urine testing, which is used to determine the human body's capacity for ridding itself of fluoride. Historically, most cases of fluoride poisoning have been caused by accidental ingestion of insecticides containing inorganic fluoride.

Because of the strength of the carbon—fluorine bond, organofluorines endure in the environment. Perfluorinated compounds PFCs have attracted particular attention as persistent global contaminants.


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These compounds can enter the environment from their direct uses in waterproofing treatments and firefighting foams or indirectly from leaks from fluoropolymer production plants where they are intermediates. Because of the acid group, PFCs are water-soluble in low concentrations.

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The U. Environmental Protection Agency classifies these materials as "emerging contaminants" based on the growing but still incomplete understanding of their environmental impact. Trace quantities of PFCs have been detected worldwide, in organisms from polar bears in the Arctic to the global human population. PFCs may be starting to decrease in the biosphere: one study indicated that PFOS levels in wildlife in Minnesota were decreasing, presumably because 3M discontinued its production.

In the body, PFCs bind to proteins such as serum albumin. Their tissue distribution in humans is unknown, but studies in rats suggest it is present mostly in the liver, kidney, and blood. They are not metabolized by the body but are excreted by the kidneys. Dwell time in the body varies greatly by species. Rodents have half-lives of days, while in humans they remain for years. Many animals show sex differences in the ability to rid the body of PFAAs, but without a clear pattern.

Gender differences of half lives vary by animal species. The potential health impact of PFCs is unclear. Unlike chlorinated hydrocarbons, PFCs are not lipophilic stored in fat , nor genotoxic damaging genes. Studies on humans have not been able to prove an impact at current exposures. Bottlenose dolphins have some of the highest PFOS concentrations of any wildlife studied; one study suggests an impact on their immune systems. The biochemical causes of toxicity are also unclear and may differ by molecule, health effect, and even animal. Less fluorinated chemicals i.


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Because biological systems do not metabolize fluorinated molecules easily, fluorinated pharmaceuticals like antibiotics and antidepressants can be found in treated city sewage and wastewater. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main articles: Fluoride therapy and Water fluoridation. Main articles: Positron emission tomography and Fludeoxyglucose 18F. See also: Blood substitute and Liquid breathing. See also: Chemical burn. See also: Fluoride toxicity. Main article: Perfluorinated compound. Siegemund, W.

Schwertfeger, A. Feiring, B. Smart, F. Behr, H.

Scientists discover new method for developing tracers used for medical imaging

Vogel, B. Clinical Oral Investigation. Journal of Public Health Dentistry. Archived from the original PDF on A textbook of public health dentistry. JP Medical Limited. Australia and New Zealand Health Policy. Dental caries: The disease and its clinical management. Archived from the original PDF on 13 January Retrieved 24 February Evidence-Based Dentistry. Among the hundreds of marketed active drug components there are more than fluorinated compounds.

The chapters will illustrate how the presence of fluorine atoms alters properties of bioactive compounds at various biochemical steps, and possibly facilitate its emergence as pharmaceuticals. Finally the synthetic potential of a fluorinase, the first C-F bond forming enzyme, is summarized. Researchers in industry Scientists in academia Medical doctors PhD students.

Rico-Lattes, J. Quintyn, V. Pagot-Mathis, X. Benouaich, and A. Spencer, and Xiaofeng Zhu. His scientific interest covers various fields, including synthesis, physical chemical characterizations, applications in fluorine chemistry, solid state chemistry, and materials sciences. His work also deals with surface modification of materials and intercalation chemistry.

Fluorine and Health

After basic military service he started his independent scientific career and did a Habilitation and venia legendi in Leipzig From he served as a Chair of the group of German fluorine chemists within the German Chemical Society. He published a book on "Alicyclic Chemistry" together with Gerhard Mann and edited a monograph "Fluorine and Health" together with Alain Tressaud His research interest span from Organofluorine Chemistry, particularly fluorination methodology, selective synthesis of fluorinated analogues of natural products and 18F-tracers for the Positron-Emission-Tomography, via Preparative Organic Chemistry including total synthesis of natural products, to enzymatic methods for the preparation of organic compounds.

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